martes, 22 de abril de 2014

English Grammar: Reported Speech (1)

Convert the phrases below into reported speech.

1) "My parents lived in London for twenty years," he said.

He said_______________________________________

2) "I'll help your mother with her bags," she said.

She said______________________________________

3) "I'm feeling happy now," said John.



If someone says a sentence, and later we want to say that sentence to someone else, we use the reported speech.
(Si alguien dice una oración, y más tarde queremos decir esa oración a otra persona, utilizamos el reported speech)

Let's imagine this situation:
(Imaginemos esta situación:)

Tom: "I like your shirt" ("Me gusta tu camisa")
Tom said that he liked my shirt. (Tom dijo que le gustaba mi camisa")

Please see how the tense has changed. It was present simple and it has changed to past simple.
(Por favor mira cómo el tiempo del verbo ha cambiado. Estaba en presente simple y ha cambiado a pasado simple.)

There are normally some changes; tenses and certain words. Please, see the below changes.
(Normalmente hay algunos cambios; tiempos y ciertas palabras. Por favor, mira los cambios de abajo) 


Present Simple => Past Simple 
She said, "I am at home". => She said that she was at home.
He said: "I play with Tom everyday". => He said that he played with Tom everyday.

Present Progressive (Continuous) = > Past Progressive (Continuous) 
You said, "They are running". => You said that they were running.

Present Perfect Simple => Past Perfect Simple 
He said, "I have sold my guitar". He said that he had sold his guitar.

Past Simple Past => Past Perfect Simple 
He said, "I bought a computer". => He said that he had bought a computer.

Past Progressive (Continuous) => Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) 
You said, "I was singing". => You said that you had been singing.

Future of Intention ("going to") =>  Past of Intention ("going to") 
She said, "I am going to finish this". => She said that she was going to finish that.

Future Simple => Conditional 
They said, "We will study". => They said that they would study.

Future Perfect => Perfect Conditional
She said, "I will have finished it by Friday". => She said that she would have finished it by Friday.

Future Progressive (Continuous) => Progressive (Continuous) Conditional 
She said, "I will be having a meeting at 4 pm". => She said that she would be having a meeting at 4 pm. 

Some additional changes

this => that or this
these => those or the
here => there
now => then 
ago => before
today => that day
this morning => that morning
last week => the previous week
last month => the previous month
last year => the previous year
next week => the following week
next month => the following month
next year => the following year
yesterday => the day before
tomorrow => the next day or the following day
the day before yesterday => two days before
the day after tomorrow => in two days time or two days later


Basic rules:
(Reglas básicas)

Say something to someone: I say hello to Margaret.
(Decir algo alguien)

Say something: He says hello
(Decir algo)

Tell someone something: I told Margaret that her parents were at home then.
(Decir a alguien algo)

Westminster Abbey


1) "My parents lived in London for twenty years," he said.

He said that his parents had lived in London for twenty years.

2) "I'll help your mother with her bags," she said.

She said that she would help her mother with her bags.

3) "I'm feeling happy now," said John.

John said that he was feeling happy then.

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